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CopyBytes & CopyCharacters

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Joined: 2009-02-02
Points: 0

I've just started learning Java and have been looking at these 2 example programs.
It seems the difference between them is that CopyBytes reads a byte at a time, whereas CopyCharacters reads 16 bits, ie 2 bytes at a time.

To explore this, I downloaded the example xanadu.txt to my Windows laptop, opened it in Notepad and saved it as a unicode document. Having done that, I had a file 300 bytes long.

I counted how many times the while loop executed

while ((c = != -1) {

I was expecting the CopyBytes to loop 300 times but the CopyCharacters only 150, as it would be reading 2 bytes at a time.

However, they both loop 300 times.

Could anyone tell me why?


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Joined: 2004-05-06
Points: 0

Hi Richard,

I'm guessing 'in' is an instance of Reader in the CopyCharacters code and an InputStream in the CopyBytes code.

It is true that Readers read characters one at a time. However, the number of bytes per character is determined by the [i]character encoding[/i] used. A FileReader uses the platform default charset, which on Windows is 'Cp1252', on many other platforms it is 'UTF-8'. Both these character sets use one byte per character for the first 128 characters, but use more bytes per character for the higher-up ones.

You can explicitly set the charset to use for decoding bytes from files using an InputStreamReader that takes a charset argument along with a FileInputStream.

e.g. Reader reader = new InputStreamReader(new FileReader("file.txt", "UTF-16"));

Constructing the above reader will get

Points to remember:
- a character can be an arbitrary number of bytes depending on the character encoding.
- FileReader by default uses platform default encoding which might not always match the file type and can vary from platform to platform.


Joined: 2009-02-02
Points: 0

Thanks for your help Peter, I've got a better idea now of the possibilities available.

> e.g. Reader reader = new InputStreamReader(new FileReader("file.txt", "UTF-16"));

I had to use this to make it work:

InputStreamReader inputStream = new InputStreamReader(new FileInputStream("file.txt"), "UTF-16");